The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

In the late 1950s, the scientific discovery of the ultra-high-strength characteristics of “graphite whiskers” by American scientists started the development of high performance carbon fiber technology. In the following 20 years, research institutes and companies in the US, Japan, and the UK have continued to advance technology research and development in the field.

What is high performance carbon fiber?

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

High performance carbon fiber is a carbon material with a carbon content of 92% and fiber form with excellent mechanical properties such as strength ≥ 3530 MPa, modulus ≥ 230 GPa, and elongation of 0.7% to 2.2%. Compared with traditional glass fiber, the Younger’s modulus of carbon fiber is more than three times of glass fiber; compared with Kevlar fiber, the Young’s modulus is about 2 times, and it is insoluble in organic solvents, acids and alkalis with excellent corrosion resistance.

In 1892, Edison invented the technology of using carbonized natural fibers as incandescent lamps, and realized the commercial application of carbon fibers for the first time. The carbon fiber had poor mechanical properties and was easily damaged at that time. Since the last 60 years, research on improving the mechanical properties of carbon fiber has never stopped, but the results were minimal. At the end of the 1950s, breakthroughs were made in the basic theoretical research of carbon fiber, which pointed out the direction for the development of high performance. At the same time, the chemical fiber technology represented by nylon and polyacrylonitrile fiber entered the mature stage, and the carbon fiber technology entered the ” Reinvented” era. In the 1960s and 1980s, high-performance carbon fiber was in a period of development, the US, Japan, and the UK successively broke through key technologies and established the industries. In the 1990s, high-performance carbon fiber applications entered an explosive period, and carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have become the main structural materials for advanced military and civilian equipment.

The US.

1) The success and failure of U.S. Union Carbide Corporation

Union Carbide Corporation, formerly known as National Carbon Company, was founded in 1886 and is a pioneer in the US synthetic carbon materials industry.

In the 1960s and 1980s, Union Carbide Corporation high-performance rayon-based carbon fiber and mesophase pitch-based carbon fiber technology were among the world’s leading level. In the early 1960s, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) developed a spacecraft thermal shield using the high-performance rayon-based carbon fiber produced by Union Carbide in 1959 as a reinforcement for phenolic resins. This is the first time that carbon fiber has replaced glass fiber and boron fiber as a resin reinforcement, and it has been successfully applied in the manufacture of lightweight heat-resistant composite materials. Thus, fiber reinforced composite technology has entered the era of “advanced composite materials”.

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

At that time, U.S. Union Carbide was supposed to be the leader of the world’s high-performance carbon fiber industry, but due to blind expansion and management confusion, it ended in tragedy. In 1984, its branch in India occurred in the Bhopal massacre, causing the most serious chemical gas leak in human history, resulting in nearly 800,000 deaths and injuries. The incident caused it to close down. After several resales, its carbon fiber business is now owned by Cytec Industries Inc.

Losing the lead of the United Carbide Company, the US high-performance carbon fiber industry failed to achieve its glory. At present, although the United States has the technology, products and production capacity that can guarantee military use, but the products do not have the advantage of cost performance and market competitiveness, the civilian demand for Boeing aircraft body structure materials can only be supplied by Japan Toray Corporation..


Osaka Industrial Technology Laboratory and Akio Shindo invented PAN-based carbon fiber.

The Government Industrial Research Institute (GIRIO) was established in 1918 to provide technical support to companies in the Kansai region of Japan. The agency was incorporated into the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in 1993 and changed its name to the Osaka National Research Institute (ONRI).

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

In the 1950s, Japan entered the economic developing period and was eager to enhance its ability to innovate independently. In 1959, Akio Shindo, a young scientist began research on carbon fiber under the auspices of the Osaka Industrial Technology Laboratory, and established the technical foundation for the industrialization of PAN-based carbon fiber.

The Osaka Industrial Technology Laboratory has frequent communication with companies, the knowledge and technology are rapidly transferred, which has eroded a large number of commercial interests. In 1959 and 1970, Tokai Electrode Mfg. Co., Ltd., Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd. and Toray Industries, Inc. Respectively obtained the patent license of the PAN-based carbon fiber technology.

2) Toray’s PAN-based carbon fiber industry construction

Toray was founded in 1926 and was formerly known as Toyo Rayon Co., Ltd. In the 1940s and 1960s, Toray Company successively realized the industrialization of fibers such as nylon, polyester and acrylic, and began to develop carbon fiber production technology in 1961. In 1968, it fully invested in the construction of PAN-based carbon fiber industry; through independent research and development, merger and acquisition, patent transfers, the commercialization of TORAYCA? PAN-based carbon fiber was realized in 1971, and it has gradually realized its wide application from sporting products to aerospace manufacturing.

3) SugioOtani invented asphalt-based and mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers

In the mid 1950s, Sugio Otani began research on carbonization technology at Gunma University. He found that blown asphalt, coal-based asphalt and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) heat-treated at 260℃ in nitrogen have good spinnability, and heat-treated polyvinyl chloride and blown asphalt at 1000℃ can produce carbon fiber with good performance . Since then, he has worked on the preparation of low-cost, high-quality carbon fiber. Using the patented technology of Sugio Otani, Kureha Chemical Ind. Co. began producing pitch-based carbon fibers in 1970.

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

At present, Japan has a complete rayon-based, PAN-based, asphalt-based and mesophase pitch carbon fiber industries, occupying the commanding heights of various sub-technologies and monopolizing the market for all high-end products.

The UK

1) Watt from the UK Royal Aircraft Establishment invented high-performance PAN-based carbon fiber

The Royal Aircraft Research Center (R.A.E.Farnborough) is the UK’s first aircraft research and design base. Its location in Farnborough is the world’s “air valley” in the early 20th century. It is the birthplace of Harrier Jet and Concorde. The center began researching glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) rocket engine components in 1961.

Watt was originally engaged in research on oxidized carbonization, pyrolytic graphite and graphite anti-seepage nuclear fuel tanks at the center. In 1963, he began to research high performance carbon fiber. Watt believes that the performance of graphite whiskers is the goal of carbon fiber. Supported by British veteran chemical and carbon materials companies such as Courtaulds Ltd and Morgan Crucible, Watt invented highly oriented polyacrylonitrile precursor fibers and produced high performance PAN-based carbon fiber at the earliest. Watt’s technology was transferred to the United States and Japan, which greatly promoted the development of the world’s high performance PAN-based carbon fiber technology.

In the same period, Rolls-Royce PLC and Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) are also deeply involved in the research of high performance carbon fiber.

2) The Contribution and regret of Rolls-Royce PLC

Shortly after Watt invented the high-performance PAN-based carbon fiber technology, Rolls-Royce took the lead in the continuous production of high performance PAN-based carbon fiber in the mid-to-late 1960s, and soon developed a carbon fiber reinforced resin aircraft engine intake fan blade, which is ready for used in the most advanced turbofan engine at that time. However, the blade failed to pass the impact test, coupled with the serious mistakes in the development of this type of engine, which eventually led to the bankruptcy and restructuring of Rolls-Royce. This has had a very negative impact on the UK carbon fiber industry.

Analysis of high performance carbon fiber technology and industrial development factors in the US, Japan and the UK.

Although the US discovered the scientific mechanism of high performance carbon fiber, the industry was first established, but the outcome was not satisfactory. Although the UK pioneered the high-performance PAN-based carbon fiber production technology and pioneered the use of its aircraft engine parts, it was eventually “endinthebeginning” due to technology. Therefore, Japan has the multi-powered and excellent environment for building a high-performance carbon fiber industry, and the situation is the best; while the US and the UK rely only on the interests of scientists and the willingness of enterprises to expand their traditional businesses with obvious weakness.

1) The US is strong in science and technology, weak in development environment, and in confused management.

From incandescent illuminants to aerospace structural materials, from natural fiber-based, rayon-based, PAN-based to mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers, American scientists have gone all the way with their efforts. However, in the long-term war and the cold war, the industrial orientation was narrow and the society was unstable; the blind expansion of enterprises and confused management led to major disasters, and the industry had suddenly stopped eventually.

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

2) The UK is strong in foundation and loses its technology.

With outstanding scientists and the technical foundation of the polyacrylonitrile fiber industry, the UK has quickly broken through key technologies and pioneered cutting-edge applied research, and its exploration spirit is amazing. However, when the technology maturity is low, the failure to develop the carbon fiber reinforced resin (CFRP) aircraft engine blades to be used is naturally a high probability event, which has shaken the confidence of industrial construction..

3) Japan is strong in consciousness, strong in learning ability, and profound in craftsmanship. It has excellent development environment and wide industrial channels.

Japan discovered the germination of high-performance carbon fiber technology timely, started with the US and the UK on the same starting line. The market is based on civilian use and steadily develops into aerospace high-end applications and expands into the industrial sector. This has made it the world’s leading position of high performance carbon fiber field.

Discussion on the Production Technology of Glass Fiber Cloth and Application

At the year 1930,the glass fiber company of United States “Owens Corning”produced E glass fiber.Since then, the human achieved the industrial production that take the ore raw materials melting into glass fiber by high temperature.In 1946, China also produced a bundle of glass fiber by using clay pot crucible, then the news reports said<>.Today, fiberglass production has evolved into an independent industrial system that includes continuous glass fibers and mineral wool with a cotton-like staple fiber.Glass fiber is a kind of engineering material, with high temperature, corrosion resistance, high strength, low density, low moisture absorption, small extension and good insulation and a series of excellent features. Glass fiber has become a modern non-metallic materials in the family which has a unique function of the material, they are micron-grade glass fiber.At present, the glass fiber material products are play a unique performance and role in mechanical, electrical, optical, corrosion resistance, insulation and sound absorption field and so on , the application area is also widely spread to electronics, electrical appliances, transportation, construction, aviation, Environmental protection and national defense and other national economy industries.They are also reinforced composite materials, electrical insulation materials, insulation materials, sound-absorbing materials, optical transmission materials and functional fiber materials.Electronic glass fiber cloth is used in the electronics industry, the general name of the glass fiber cloth are insulated glass fiber cloth category, the industry collectively referred to as E glass fiber cloth, E glass fiber products in a rising star.The production of electronic grade glass fiber cloth draws on the traditional textile technology and creates a unique post-processing system. Its production technology is difficult, high product quality requirements is regarded as glass fiber products in the high-tech products, but also electrical insulation glass fiber in the high-end products, widely used in the production of electronic industry in the copper clad plate and printed circuit board

Electronic grade glass fiber cloth production process
Conventional glass fiber products include: alkali-free glass fiber yarn, alkali-free glass fiber cloth, alkali glass fiber yarn, alkali glass fiber cloth, their production process is basically the same. Taking glass fiber products as an example, the problems in the production process and their solutions are discussed.
Printed circuit board with electronic grade glass fiber cloth, also known as alkali-free glass fiber cloth, it is the alkali metal oxide content of less than 0.8% of the aluminum borosilicate glass fiber cloth.Electronic grade glass fiber cloth technical requirements are extremely strict, and thus become a modern glass fiber textile technology level embodies. The requirements of the use of glass fiber yarns with sufficient flexibility and spinnability, the textile process and the traditional cotton textile process is similar to the current use of high-speed, low twist, large package twisting process, And the axis of the way to produce weaving axis,single weft high-speed jet weaving.EWPC173-130 (7628), an area density of 204.4 g / m2, and a yarn density of 68.7 for a printed circuit board with an international commercial code of 7628, a nominal thickness of 0.173 mm and a width of 130 cm Tex, twist 28 twist / m, single fiber diameter of about 9μm, warp and weft density of 42 / (25mm) × 32 / (25mm), the specific production process shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1
Figure 1 glass fiber cloth production process

7628 fiberglass cloth production process and cotton products similar to the focus need to focus on the following processes:
(1)drawing:The first to configure the appropriate sizing agent in the original silk evenly film to reduce the original hairiness and improve the efficiency of weaving production.The main purpose of the wire drawing is to maintain the uniformity and stability of the linear density of the original silk, both to ensure that the electronic grade glass fiber cloth Of the surface density and fabric thickness of the uniform and stable, and will not make the fabric surface serious hairiness, resulting in the phenomenon of rubber particles on the surface of the fabric and seriously affect the performance of the fabric.
(2)post-processing:The role of the post-treatment process is to glass fiber fabric in a certain production conditions, a certain temperature heating, so that the coating of the infiltration of the decomposition of components, carbonization, combustion and removal.These wetting agents must be removed from textiles woven from woven fabrics of textile type, since they hinder the adhesion of glass fiber fabrics to resins, rubbers and other substances. The post-treatment process includes continuous heat treatment, batch heat treatment, surface chemical treatment,For continuous heat treatment, the key is to correctly set and control the high temperature desizing furnace furnace temperature and speed, the key to the process is to master the treatment temperature and time, the purpose is to remove most of the organic matter on the cloth, the residual organic matter Reduced to below 0.5%.In general, the processing temperature of electronic grade glass fiber cloth is not higher than 450 ℃ is appropriate, furnace temperature and speed setting and adjustment of the purpose is to achieve the process requirements of organic residue indicators, and minimize the loss of strength.After the heat treatment of electronic grade glass fiber cloth also through the surface chemical treatment to improve the glass fiber and resin bonding interface, improve the mechanical properties of composite sheet and electrical properties. Electronic glass fiber cloth surface chemical treatment of the basic method is the use of silane treatment agent (also known as coupling agent) treatment, and finally dried into a cloth roll, the inspection and packaging to be electronic grade glass fiber cloth products.

Key technology of electronic grade glass fiber cloth production
The key to the post-treatment process of the electronic grade glass fiber cloth is the index of the residual amount of the organic matter in the heat treatment. If the indicator is too high, the yellow and black lines may appear on the cloth. This phenomenon will not only affect the appearance of the fabric, but also seriously affect the conductive rate.In the surface treatment process, if the coupling agent solution is unstable, it will seriously affect the bonding of the electronic grade glass fiber cloth with the resin. In the electronic grade glass fiber cloth production process there is an important problem, that is, the weft yarn weft skew, which is mainly woven and post-processing process through the guide roller is not parallel to the resulting, and ultimately will cause electronic grade glass fiber Cloth warp.
The appearance quality of the electronic grade glass fiber cloth, such as the occurrence of weaving defects and cotton fabrics are basically the same. According to the characteristics of glass fiber,Electronic grade glass fiber cloth in the production process should pay attention to the following three main issues:
(1) the use of as little as possible the number of processing;
(2) the process line as much as possible to reduce the bending and friction of glass fiber;
(3) the process of maintaining a uniform tension, which is particularly important for glass fiber cloth.

Electronic glass fiber cloth market prospects
The electronic grade glass fiber cloth is an indispensable material for copper clad sheets and is the basis material for printed circuit boards. Printed circuit board is a high-tech products of the electronics industry, and multi-layer printed circuit board is the most representative,the most productive and development potential of the electronics industry.In recent years, with the electronics industry towards high precision, high density, high performance, micro-hole, thin and high-level direction, the major electronic cloth manufacturers have to take appropriate effective measures to maximize the elimination of electronic cloth Trace metal impurities, reduce the micro-bubbles in electronic yarn, improve the smoothness of electronic cloth and resin impregnation, so that copper-clad copper plate with electronic grade glass fiber cloth to achieve a high precision, high uniformity, high purification and high stability and many other Claim.The application of electronic grade glass fiber cloth has been rapidly entering the industrial sector from civilian appliances and related products such as televisions, mobile phones, laptops, mini-cameras and storage cards. China has long been the electronics industry as a pillar industry of national economic development, printed circuit boards and copper clad sheet is considered the basis of the electronics industry, and electronic glass fiber cloth is the pillar industry is essential to the basic material.

The international electronics industry to digital technology and network technology as the representative of the information technology continued to leap year by year, a large number of electronic information products upgrading (such as the further promotion of digital television applications, etc.), making the new market demand continues to emerge. With the rapid rise of the international electronic information industry, greatly promoted the electronic glass fiber cloth market prosperity, market demand growth year by year, electronic glass fiber cloth market prospects are very broad.

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pdfDiscussion on the Production Technology of Glass Fiber Cloth and Application.pdf

Composites materials will increase in the oil and gas industry market

According to a recent report”Composites materials in the oil and gas market:Resin type (epoxy, polyester and phenolic resin), fiber type (glass fiber and carbon fiber), application areas (pipes, tanks and advanced applications) and areas ——Global Forecast to 2021 “,The market size of composites materials in the oil and gas industry is expected to reach $ 1.98 billion in 2021,From 2016 to 2021 , the compound annual growth rate up to 5.05%.The rising demand for corrosion and light materials in the oil and gas industry and the low maintenance costs of composite materials are key drivers of global composite materials in the oil and gas industry market.

Due to the larger demand for pipes, tanks, fracturing balls, fracturing and other applications, fiberglass-based composites account for the major share of the oil and gas industry composite market.The low cost of glass fiber and its superior performance, such as strength, flexibility, durability, stability, light, heat resistance, temperature, moisture resistance and other factors to promote the growth of glass-based oil and gas composite materials.

Epoxy resin based oil and gas composite materials have the largest market share, is expected to be the fastest growing resin type of composite materials in the oil and gas industry market,This is because epoxy-based composites provide a variety of thermal and mechanical properties, such as corrosion-resistant liquids, excellent electrical insulation, good high temperature performance, compared with polyester resin, lower styrene emissions, As well as good bonding strength with different types of reinforcing materials.
Pipes, standpipes, downstream pipelines and oil pipelines dominate the composite materials in the oil and gas industry market.This is due to the growing demand for high-strength, high-performance, cost-effective, non-corrosive lightweight materials for deepwater offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities. In addition, the use of composite pipes reduces overall maintenance costs, thereby reducing maintenance costs for the entire plant.