Why the glass fiber in 3d printing nylon material accounts for 40%?

First, is that the only kind of 3D printing nylon materials that glass fiber’s ratio is 40%?

Of course not, in 3D printing nylon materials, the ratios of glass fiber usually are 30%, 15% and 40%. Then according to the previous data and experience of E-key printing to judge, it is the highest probability that guests choose to add 30% of glass fiber to print model.

Why the printing 40% of the glass fiber selectivity is smaller? Because the model with 40% fiberglass is slightly brittle, which is also a report based on data from our customers.

Second, what is the difference between nylon plus fiberglass and no fiberglass?

From the material data, the temperature resistance of the 3D printing nylon material added fiberglass will be better. The theoretical data show that it can withstand 148 degrees of heat. However, because the data that the material supplier gives is usually a limit of data, we do not recommend this data. Then in a sound situation, If you choose 3D printing nylon with glass fiber, we advise you that the temperature dose not to exceed 130 degrees, and do not do a long time test. Because this temperature test is usually short, for example, within 10 minutes is OK.

How about it’s hardness? It is 76 Judging from the data. And we can learn from the data that the hardness of the material with glass fiber will probably be 20% higher than it without glass fiber . This is related to the properties of fiberglass. Of course, this is also because guests need to the model with more resistance to higher temperature and strength. And it is recommended to use the materials with fiberglass.

In fact, in the 3D printing industry, printing nylon material called SLS uniformly whether it add glass fiber or not.

Third, what kind of products do the nylon added glass fiber suitable for, what are their characteristics?

This material is more suitable for product functional testing. You can use this material to make some chains and springs that need to bear the strength of activity. Nylon material is permeable, so it absorbs the small dust in the air, and it tends to turn yellow if you put it outdoors in the sun.

The design and the thickness of each model may affect its flexibility. Then we remind that, it usually has the temperature and strength requirements if you choose this material. In terms of surface smoothness, because of the 3D printing SLS nylon material the is made from high-temperature sintering powder, the printed nylon material surface is frosted and unsmooth. If your product has high requirement for the surface , it is necessary to color later. Of course, the painting will be a little more difficult than the resin material printing, so its cost will be higher relatively. The thickness of the printed layer is usually 0.1mm to 0.2mm, and it is thicker than the resin.

The US Company Strongwell Have Launched New Glass Fiber Pole

Recently, the US Company Strongwell has designed and manufactured new fiberglass poles to replace wooden, steel or concrete poles. This pole that is composed of pultrusion components provides low electrical conductivity and high strength. Moreover, it is about 30 percent lighter than the wooden and 60 percent lighter than the steel. Its core material is foam and the outer part is the composite of resin and glass fiber fabric, which can ensure its impact resistance, durability, lightweight and high strength, and ensure the safety in the process of transportation and using.

Strongwell has designed a fiberglass pole that can directly replace existing wooden, steel and concrete poles.

Materials for electrical application are usually made of wood, steel or concrete. This is because they are multipurpose and have been recognized as building materials for decades. The first electric pole was made of wood, thanks to its excellent strength-weight ratios and ductility that can withstand wind-related damage. Nowadays, power grids and wide ranges of transmission line systems are widespread around the world, and the combination of wood, steel and concrete poles has been found in these infrastructure systems. However, these established industrial materials now exhibit the same mechanical defects as the first time the electrical transmission was set up.

Wood is essentially hygroscopic and prone to decay, and steel products oxidize and corrode rapidly under atmospheric conditions. Pollutants and weathering can reduce the mechanical stability of poles that made of wood, steel and concrete, resulting in premature failure of components and huge safety risks.

Fiberglass poles provide a comprehensive solution for the problems of traditional materials. This paper discusses the characteristics of fiberglass poles and how they improve the security of infrastructure: the capacity of fiberglass poles.

Strongwell has designed a proprietary fiberglass pole that can directly replace existing wooden, steel and concrete poles. This lightweight product consists of pultrusion forming components that provide low electrical conductivity and improved strength-weight ratios based on wood and steel. It is about 30 percent lighter than wood and 60 percent lighter than steel. This combination of mechanical stability and lightness is provided by high-performance component matrix, ranging from internal multidirectional glass fabrics to high-strength resin saturation.

The benefit of this construction method is to resist decay or rust, which greatly improves the durability of the transmission array and reduces the risk caused by mechanical failure. Because of its excellent impact resistance, the utility pole further benefits from the glass fiber material. It uses internal foam core for shock adsorption, which can reduce the risk in accidental traffic collisions. In some accidents in which vehicles collide with fiberglass poles, the impact force is largely absorbed by the structure of the material, so as to avoid serious damage.

Glass fiber has the advantages of installation and maintenance safety due to its lightweight and low conductivity. Fiberglass poles can be erected with lower working pressure and injury risk. There is little special consideration in using this material. Because of its low conductivity, it can be grounded as wooden poles, thus reducing the risk associated with unfamiliar materials. It can also be drilled to facilitate installation of key transmission conductors and transformers.

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

In the late 1950s, the scientific discovery of the ultra-high-strength characteristics of “graphite whiskers” by American scientists started the development of high performance carbon fiber technology. In the following 20 years, research institutes and companies in the US, Japan, and the UK have continued to advance technology research and development in the field.

What is high performance carbon fiber?

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

High performance carbon fiber is a carbon material with a carbon content of 92% and fiber form with excellent mechanical properties such as strength ≥ 3530 MPa, modulus ≥ 230 GPa, and elongation of 0.7% to 2.2%. Compared with traditional glass fiber, the Younger’s modulus of carbon fiber is more than three times of glass fiber; compared with Kevlar fiber, the Young’s modulus is about 2 times, and it is insoluble in organic solvents, acids and alkalis with excellent corrosion resistance.

In 1892, Edison invented the technology of using carbonized natural fibers as incandescent lamps, and realized the commercial application of carbon fibers for the first time. The carbon fiber had poor mechanical properties and was easily damaged at that time. Since the last 60 years, research on improving the mechanical properties of carbon fiber has never stopped, but the results were minimal. At the end of the 1950s, breakthroughs were made in the basic theoretical research of carbon fiber, which pointed out the direction for the development of high performance. At the same time, the chemical fiber technology represented by nylon and polyacrylonitrile fiber entered the mature stage, and the carbon fiber technology entered the ” Reinvented” era. In the 1960s and 1980s, high-performance carbon fiber was in a period of development, the US, Japan, and the UK successively broke through key technologies and established the industries. In the 1990s, high-performance carbon fiber applications entered an explosive period, and carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have become the main structural materials for advanced military and civilian equipment.

The US.

1) The success and failure of U.S. Union Carbide Corporation

Union Carbide Corporation, formerly known as National Carbon Company, was founded in 1886 and is a pioneer in the US synthetic carbon materials industry.

In the 1960s and 1980s, Union Carbide Corporation high-performance rayon-based carbon fiber and mesophase pitch-based carbon fiber technology were among the world’s leading level. In the early 1960s, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) developed a spacecraft thermal shield using the high-performance rayon-based carbon fiber produced by Union Carbide in 1959 as a reinforcement for phenolic resins. This is the first time that carbon fiber has replaced glass fiber and boron fiber as a resin reinforcement, and it has been successfully applied in the manufacture of lightweight heat-resistant composite materials. Thus, fiber reinforced composite technology has entered the era of “advanced composite materials”.

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

At that time, U.S. Union Carbide was supposed to be the leader of the world’s high-performance carbon fiber industry, but due to blind expansion and management confusion, it ended in tragedy. In 1984, its branch in India occurred in the Bhopal massacre, causing the most serious chemical gas leak in human history, resulting in nearly 800,000 deaths and injuries. The incident caused it to close down. After several resales, its carbon fiber business is now owned by Cytec Industries Inc.

Losing the lead of the United Carbide Company, the US high-performance carbon fiber industry failed to achieve its glory. At present, although the United States has the technology, products and production capacity that can guarantee military use, but the products do not have the advantage of cost performance and market competitiveness, the civilian demand for Boeing aircraft body structure materials can only be supplied by Japan Toray Corporation..

Japan

Osaka Industrial Technology Laboratory and Akio Shindo invented PAN-based carbon fiber.

The Government Industrial Research Institute (GIRIO) was established in 1918 to provide technical support to companies in the Kansai region of Japan. The agency was incorporated into the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in 1993 and changed its name to the Osaka National Research Institute (ONRI).

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

In the 1950s, Japan entered the economic developing period and was eager to enhance its ability to innovate independently. In 1959, Akio Shindo, a young scientist began research on carbon fiber under the auspices of the Osaka Industrial Technology Laboratory, and established the technical foundation for the industrialization of PAN-based carbon fiber.

The Osaka Industrial Technology Laboratory has frequent communication with companies, the knowledge and technology are rapidly transferred, which has eroded a large number of commercial interests. In 1959 and 1970, Tokai Electrode Mfg. Co., Ltd., Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd. and Toray Industries, Inc. Respectively obtained the patent license of the PAN-based carbon fiber technology.

2) Toray’s PAN-based carbon fiber industry construction

Toray was founded in 1926 and was formerly known as Toyo Rayon Co., Ltd. In the 1940s and 1960s, Toray Company successively realized the industrialization of fibers such as nylon, polyester and acrylic, and began to develop carbon fiber production technology in 1961. In 1968, it fully invested in the construction of PAN-based carbon fiber industry; through independent research and development, merger and acquisition, patent transfers, the commercialization of TORAYCA? PAN-based carbon fiber was realized in 1971, and it has gradually realized its wide application from sporting products to aerospace manufacturing.

3) SugioOtani invented asphalt-based and mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers

In the mid 1950s, Sugio Otani began research on carbonization technology at Gunma University. He found that blown asphalt, coal-based asphalt and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) heat-treated at 260℃ in nitrogen have good spinnability, and heat-treated polyvinyl chloride and blown asphalt at 1000℃ can produce carbon fiber with good performance . Since then, he has worked on the preparation of low-cost, high-quality carbon fiber. Using the patented technology of Sugio Otani, Kureha Chemical Ind. Co. began producing pitch-based carbon fibers in 1970.

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

At present, Japan has a complete rayon-based, PAN-based, asphalt-based and mesophase pitch carbon fiber industries, occupying the commanding heights of various sub-technologies and monopolizing the market for all high-end products.

The UK

1) Watt from the UK Royal Aircraft Establishment invented high-performance PAN-based carbon fiber

The Royal Aircraft Research Center (R.A.E.Farnborough) is the UK’s first aircraft research and design base. Its location in Farnborough is the world’s “air valley” in the early 20th century. It is the birthplace of Harrier Jet and Concorde. The center began researching glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) rocket engine components in 1961.

Watt was originally engaged in research on oxidized carbonization, pyrolytic graphite and graphite anti-seepage nuclear fuel tanks at the center. In 1963, he began to research high performance carbon fiber. Watt believes that the performance of graphite whiskers is the goal of carbon fiber. Supported by British veteran chemical and carbon materials companies such as Courtaulds Ltd and Morgan Crucible, Watt invented highly oriented polyacrylonitrile precursor fibers and produced high performance PAN-based carbon fiber at the earliest. Watt’s technology was transferred to the United States and Japan, which greatly promoted the development of the world’s high performance PAN-based carbon fiber technology.

In the same period, Rolls-Royce PLC and Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) are also deeply involved in the research of high performance carbon fiber.

2) The Contribution and regret of Rolls-Royce PLC

Shortly after Watt invented the high-performance PAN-based carbon fiber technology, Rolls-Royce took the lead in the continuous production of high performance PAN-based carbon fiber in the mid-to-late 1960s, and soon developed a carbon fiber reinforced resin aircraft engine intake fan blade, which is ready for used in the most advanced turbofan engine at that time. However, the blade failed to pass the impact test, coupled with the serious mistakes in the development of this type of engine, which eventually led to the bankruptcy and restructuring of Rolls-Royce. This has had a very negative impact on the UK carbon fiber industry.

Analysis of high performance carbon fiber technology and industrial development factors in the US, Japan and the UK.

Although the US discovered the scientific mechanism of high performance carbon fiber, the industry was first established, but the outcome was not satisfactory. Although the UK pioneered the high-performance PAN-based carbon fiber production technology and pioneered the use of its aircraft engine parts, it was eventually “endinthebeginning” due to technology. Therefore, Japan has the multi-powered and excellent environment for building a high-performance carbon fiber industry, and the situation is the best; while the US and the UK rely only on the interests of scientists and the willingness of enterprises to expand their traditional businesses with obvious weakness.

1) The US is strong in science and technology, weak in development environment, and in confused management.

From incandescent illuminants to aerospace structural materials, from natural fiber-based, rayon-based, PAN-based to mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers, American scientists have gone all the way with their efforts. However, in the long-term war and the cold war, the industrial orientation was narrow and the society was unstable; the blind expansion of enterprises and confused management led to major disasters, and the industry had suddenly stopped eventually.

The differences between carbon fiber and glass fiber.

2) The UK is strong in foundation and loses its technology.

With outstanding scientists and the technical foundation of the polyacrylonitrile fiber industry, the UK has quickly broken through key technologies and pioneered cutting-edge applied research, and its exploration spirit is amazing. However, when the technology maturity is low, the failure to develop the carbon fiber reinforced resin (CFRP) aircraft engine blades to be used is naturally a high probability event, which has shaken the confidence of industrial construction..

3) Japan is strong in consciousness, strong in learning ability, and profound in craftsmanship. It has excellent development environment and wide industrial channels.

Japan discovered the germination of high-performance carbon fiber technology timely, started with the US and the UK on the same starting line. The market is based on civilian use and steadily develops into aerospace high-end applications and expands into the industrial sector. This has made it the world’s leading position of high performance carbon fiber field.